DOES GOD INTERVENE IN MY LIFE? IF So, HOW?
by Shawn Brasseaux
“From a Bible-believing, Pauline dispensational perspective, can you please tell me whether or not God intervenes in my life? If so, how does He? If He does not, does that mean that He is unconcerned about me?” Let us be Berean Bible students and search the Holy Bible, and not take anyone’s word for it!
Within Christendom—that is, the professing “Christian” church—there is the view that God will do anything and everything in our lives. It is commonly believed that guardian angels will appear to protect us from accidents; that God will manipulate our circumstances to miraculously deliver us from times of pain and suffering; that He will heal our sick bodies if we just “name and claim” the healing passages in Scripture; that He will rain down money from heaven if we faithfully give to a ministry or church; that He will speak to us directly in audible voices, dreams, visions, and inner impressions; that He will guide us to find misplaced items; that He will mysteriously lead us to the right person to marry, the right job offer to accept, the right house or vehicle to purchase; and so on. As you can probably see, what happens here is that Christians get so focused on what they are doing that they overlook what the God of the Bible is doing.
Friends, the old adage, “God works in mysterious ways, His wonders to perform” is certainly good religious tradition, but it is bad Bible doctrine. If something happens that appears to be miraculous, people usually refer to it as the “mysterious” working of God—they immediately attribute it to the God of the Bible when they see a bright light, an “angel,” and/or an “apparition” of a deceased loved one or “saint”; when they amazingly recover from a life-threatening illness; when someone gives them a check with a generous amount written on it; and on and on. We read about how “saintly medallions” and scapulars ward off evil and protect from illness and disaster, how tumors just fall from sick peoples’ bodies when a minister lays hands on them, how an angel saved a church from being consumed by flames, someone who claims that God spoke in his or her heart, someone seeing “the virgin Mary” in a treetop or piece of food, an angel who instructs someone to do something. On the other hand, some people believe that God created the universe but then abandoned it, and is unconcerned about our suffering, our needs, et cetera. They believe that God does not intervene at all in our lives.
It would be important to introduce two theological terms associated with this issue: deism and theism. According to The Oxford American Dictionary, deism is defined as, “the belief in the existence of a supreme being, specifically of a creator who does not intervene in the universe. The term is used chiefly of an intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries that accepted the existence of a creator on the basis of reason but rejected belief in a supernatural deity who interacts with humankind.” This is contrasted with theism, “the belief in the existence of a god or gods, esp. belief in one god as creator of the universe, intervening in it and sustaining a personal relation to his creatures.” Now, which view is the view of the Scriptures? Does God intervene in our lives, as the theists claim, or does He not, as the deists claim? What would be the Bible-believing view? Theism or deism?
Before we begin, here is a verse of Scripture that will help us in reaching a sound conclusion: “(For we walk by faith, not by sight: )” (2 Corinthians 5:7).
In John 20:24-30, we find the famous account of “doubting Thomas:” “ But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus came.  The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.  And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto you.  Then saith he to Thomas, Reach hither thy finger, and behold my hands; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side: and be not faithless, but believing.  And Thomas answered and said unto him, My Lord and my God.  Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.  And many other signs truly did Jesus in the presence of his disciples, which are not written in this book:”
Certainly, the disciples saw Jesus Christ in His resurrected physical body. Yet, Thomas was absent at that time, so he declared that he would not believe unless He saw the nail-scars in Jesus’ hands, unless he had touched those scars, and unless he had put his hand in Jesus’ spear-scar on His side. The Lord Jesus replied in verse 29, “Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed: blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.” This is a companion verse to 2 Corinthians 5:7. Dear friends, we are not walking by sight; we are walking by faith. It is not important for us to see God’s activities with our physical eyes.
Due to religious tradition, what people commonly do is look outside of the Bible for confirmation of God’s love for them. “Oh, if God really loved me, He would heal me, He would get rid of my financial debt, He would spare me from accidents, He would give me a godly spouse and obedient children….” Interestingly, the atheists have a similar claim, “If God really exists, He needs to perform a miracle so that I can believe He really is there. If a loving God really existed, there should not be sickness and suffering in our world.” This is not walking by faith; this is walking by sight, walking in unbelief, plain and simple.
Hebrews 11:1 says: “Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.” And 2 Corinthians 4:16-18: “ For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day.  For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory;  While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal.” All of our foregoing comments were needed to arrive at the fact that the God of the Bible is intervening in our lives in the spiritual dimension, in an area that we cannot see (this will receive more treatment later on, in point #4).
In the grand scheme of things, God’s intervention in human history has brought, is bringing, or will bring His overall will for us, to pass. We will briefly consider the following five issues:
- His Love Demonstrated to Us at Calvary (visible)
- His Institution of Paul’s Ministry (visible)
- His Written Word, the Holy Bible (visible)
- His Spirit Working in Us Who Believe (invisible) – our present-day
- His Working with Us at the Rapture and Beyond (visible)
1. HIS LOVE DEMONSTRATED TO US AT CALVARY
To what is God’s love for us tied? Our circumstances? No, Calvary’s cross is where God showed us His wonderful, unconditional love for us! Romans 5:8 says: “But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.”
Titus 3:4-7: “ But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,  Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;  Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour;  That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.” Indeed, the God of the Bible does care about us. He physically, visibly, and historically manifested His love for us at Calvary’s cross! He wanted to provide us a way of escaping the eternal hellfire that we sinners so deserve; He wanted to have a relationship with us through Jesus Christ! As 2 Corinthians 5:21, God the Father wanted us to be made His righteousness in Jesus Christ when we trust His finished crosswork as sufficient payment for our sins: “For he hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin; that we might be made the righteousness of God in him [Christ].”
2. HIS INSTITUTION OF PAUL’S MINISTRY
We read in 1 Timothy 2:4-7: “ [God, verse 3] Who will have all men to be saved, and to come unto the knowledge of the truth.  For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;  Who gave himself a ransom for all, to be testified in due time.  Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ, and lie not; ) a teacher of the Gentiles in faith and verity.”
According to the above passage, the God of the Bible is most definitely concerned with His creation, particularly the human race. He wants every person to be saved, and He wants every saved person to understand why He saved him or her. The one Mediator between the one God and mankind is the Lord Jesus Christ, and no mediator would be necessary if that one God were unconcerned with creation. The point is the God of the Bible is concerned with us, and that is why a Mediator exists between us! It is through the physical, visible, and historical ministry of the Apostle Paul that we learn that God wants to save all Jews and all Gentiles who will trust His only begotten Son, the Lord Jesus Christ, and His finished crosswork at Calvary (Paul’s Gospel, the Gospel of the Grace of God, 1 Corinthians 15:3-4). It is by this means that God is currently forming the Church the Body of Christ (Ephesians 2:11–3:11).
Titus 1:1-3 continues: “ Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God’s elect, and the acknowledging of the truth which is after godliness;  In hope of eternal life, which God, that cannot lie, promised before the world began;  But hath in due times manifested his word through preaching, which is committed unto me according to the commandment of God our Saviour;” In Acts chapter 9, the risen, ascended, and glorified Lord Jesus Christ reached down and saved Saul of Tarsus, and commissioned him as His Apostle of the Gentiles (cf. Romans 11:13).
We read of Paul’s conversion from his own lips in Acts 26:12-18 (we read similar accounts in Acts 9:1-9 and Acts 22:1-11). Notice how the Lord Jesus Christ visibly intervened in human history, how Saul of Tarsus saw a bright light from heaven above and he heard the voice of Jesus Christ from heaven above. How this salvation experience affects us is in verses 16-18: “ Whereupon as I went to Damascus with authority and commission from the chief priests,  At midday, O king, I saw in the way a light from heaven, above the brightness of the sun, shining round about me and them which journeyed with me.  And when we were all fallen to the earth, I heard a voice speaking unto me, and saying in the Hebrew tongue, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me? it is hard for thee to kick against the pricks.  And I said, Who art thou, Lord? And he said, I am Jesus whom thou persecutest.  But rise, and stand upon thy feet: for I have appeared unto thee for this purpose, to make thee a minister and a witness both of these things which thou hast seen, and of those things in the which I will appear unto thee;  Delivering thee from the people, and from the Gentiles, unto whom now I send thee,  To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God, that they may receive forgiveness of sins, and inheritance among them which are sanctified by faith that is in me.”
The Lord Jesus Christ saved Saul of Tarsus to make him His apostle of the Gentiles. By divine commission, Paul the Apostle was sent to us Gentiles to preach a special message to us that He had received from Jesus Christ, and that message would free us from Satan’s spiritual blindness. The Gospel of the Grace of God is that Jesus Christ died for our sins, He shed His sinless blood for our forgiveness, He was buried to put away our sins, and He rose again the third day to give us eternal life when we trust Him and Him alone (1 Corinthians 15:3-4). When we trust in that finished crosswork alone, God the Father “[delivers] us from the power of darkness, and [translates] us into the kingdom of his dear Son” (Colossians 1:13). This will receive fuller treatment later, in point #4.
3. HIS WRITTEN WORD, THE HOLY BIBLE
Over the course of 1500 to 1600 years, God the Holy Spirit moved holy men of God to write down His inspired words. This covered the time from before Moses (Job, circa 1550 B.C.) to the first century A.D. Over time, these manuscripts were copied, collated, and bound, and they are, in our present-day, preserved for us in English in the King James Bible. God has promised to not only preserve His Word forever, but every word in His Word. In order for Calvary’s crosswork to benefit us, God had to ensure that the text of that doctrine would be available to us. Bible inspiration and Bible preservation go hand-in-hand, for without a preserved Bible, point #4 would be impossible. Without Bible preservation, Bible inspiration is useless to us.
- Psalm 100:5: “For the LORD is good; his mercy is everlasting; and his truth endureth to all generations.”
- Psalm 12:6-7: “ The words of the LORD are pure words: as silver tried in a furnace of earth, purified seven times.  Thou shalt keep them, O LORD, thou shalt preserve them from this generation for ever.”
- Psalm 33:11: “The counsel of the LORD standeth for ever, the thoughts of his heart to all generations.”
- Isaiah 29:18: “And in that day shall the deaf hear the words of the book, and the eyes of the blind shall see out of obscurity, and out of darkness.”
- Isaiah 30:8: “Now go, write it before them in a table, and note it in a book, that it may be for the time to come for ever and ever:”
- Matthew 24:35: “Heaven and earth shall pass away, but my words shall not pass away.” (Also Mark 13:31 and Luke 21:33.)
4. HIS SPIRIT WORKING IN US WHO BELIEVE
In our opening comments, we noted how many in Christendom today are seeking “God” in the form of miraculous demonstrations—angelic appearances, trips to heaven or hell for brief glimpses, bodily healing, financial deliverance, romantic-life rejuvenation, and so on. To deny God doing those things today is to commit “blasphemy” against organized religion, and sure to cause you to get negative feedback! Still, we seek God’s approval, not man’s approval (2 Timothy 2:15; Galatians 1:10).
The Holy Spirit through Paul could not be clearer: “(For we walk by faith, not by sight: )” (2 Corinthians 5:7). To repeat, the Scriptures say that we are not walking by sight; we are walking by faith. It is not important for us to see God’s activities with our physical eyes. That is what God said in His Word. Will we believe Him, or will we reject Him and do whatever we want for sake of holding to our religious tradition? Again, we remind you of what people say and do when they look outside of the Bible for confirmation of God’s love for them. “Oh, if God really loved me, He would heal me, He would get rid of my financial debt, He would keep me from accidents, He would give me a godly spouse and obedient children.” The atheists claim, “If God really existed, He needs to perform a miracle so that I can believe He really is there. If a loving God existed, there would be no sickness or suffering.” This is not walking by faith; this is unbelief, plain and simple.
We looked at these verses earlier, but we need to review them again. Hebrews 11:1 says: “Now faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.” And 2 Corinthians 4:16-18: “ For which cause we faint not; but though our outward man perish, yet the inward man is renewed day by day.  For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory;  While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal.” God is intervening in our lives in the spiritual dimension, in an area that we cannot see.
The God of the Bible is working in our inner man, soul and spirit. The Bible explains what this is in 1 Thessalonians 2:13: “For this cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe.” God’s Word, the living, life-giving Holy Scriptures, is what God uses to work in those who believe them. Paul prayed for us in Ephesians 3:16, “to be strengthened with might by his Spirit in the inner man….” We read about God transforming us by the renewing of our minds (Romans 12:1-2; Ephesians 4:23; Colossians 3:10)—God the Holy Spirit will use His Word that we study and believe to cleanse our minds of error, and cause His power to work in us to do the work of the ministry (witness to lost people, share God’s Word with other Christians, be productive citizens, be godly parents or children, et cetera).
Regarding the triune Godhead, God the Father is for us, God the Son is for us, and God the Holy Ghost is for us. Romans 8:26-34 shows how all three Persons of the Trinity play an active role in our lives as Christians: “ Likewise the Spirit also helpeth our infirmities: for we know not what we should pray for as we ought: but the Spirit itself maketh intercession for us with groanings which cannot be uttered.  And he that searcheth the hearts knoweth what is the mind of the Spirit, because he maketh intercession for the saints according to the will of God.  And we know that all things work together for good to them that love God, to them who are the called according to his purpose.  For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brethren.  Moreover whom he did predestinate, them he also called: and whom he called, them he also justified: and whom he justified, them he also glorified.  What shall we then say to these things? If God be for us, who can be against us?  He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not with him also freely give us all things?  Who shall lay any thing to the charge of God’s elect? It is God that justifieth.  Who is he that condemneth? It is Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us.”
The Holy Spirit, the moment we believed the Gospel of the Grace of God in our hearts, He baptized us into the Church the Body of Christ (1 Corinthians 12:13). God’s great power was exercised to take us off the path to hell (1 Corinthians 1:18)! God the Father sealed us with the Holy Spirit (Ephesians 1:13; 2 Corinthians 1:22). The Bible says He forgave us for Christ’s sake (Ephesians 1:7; Ephesians 4:32; Colossians 1:14; Colossians 2:13). It is by the teaching ministry of the Holy Ghost that we can learn how God’s grace instructs to live, how to enjoy this new identity and life we have in Jesus Christ. Titus 2:11-12: “ For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,  Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;”
The Holy Spirit teaches us using His written Word: “ But as it is written, Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.  But God hath revealed them unto us by his Spirit: for the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God.  For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God.  Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God.  Which things also we speak, not in the words which man’s wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual.  But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned” (1 Corinthians 2:9-14).
The Holy Spirit uses the Holy Bible to comfort us in times of trouble (2 Corinthians 12:7-10): “ And lest I should be exalted above measure through the abundance of the revelations, there was given to me a thorn in the flesh, the messenger of Satan to buffet me, lest I should be exalted above measure.  For this thing I besought the Lord thrice, that it might depart from me.  And he said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee: for my strength is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me.  Therefore I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ’s sake: for when I am weak, then am I strong.”
The Holy Spirit guides us into righteous living, that we be under grace not law: Galatians 5:18 says “But if ye be led of the Spirit, ye are not under the law.” Again, Titus 2:11-13: “ For the grace of God that bringeth salvation hath appeared to all men,  Teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly, in this present world;  Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;” When the Holy Spirit works in our lives, Galatians 5:22-23 says the following will occur: “ But the fruit of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, longsuffering, gentleness, goodness, faith,  Meekness, temperance: against such there is no law.”
The Holy Spirit empowers us to endure all of life’s experiences, good or bad. Ephesians 6:10 tells us: “Finally, my brethren, be strong in the Lord, and in the power of his might.” And Philippians 4:13: “I can do all things through Christ which strengtheneth me.” Finally, Philippians 4:6-7: “ Be careful for nothing; but in every thing by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving let your requests be made known unto God.  And the peace of God, which passeth all understanding, shall keep your hearts and minds through Christ Jesus.”
5. HIS WORKING WITH US AT THE RAPTURE AND BEYOND
As stated in point #4 above, the moment we believed the Gospel of the Grace of God as the answer to our sin debt, God the Father sealed us with the Holy Spirit. We read in Ephesians 1:13-14: “ In whom ye also trusted, after that ye heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that ye believed, ye were sealed with that holy Spirit of promise,  Which is the earnest of our inheritance until the redemption of the purchased possession, unto the praise of his glory.” The indwelling Holy Spirit is the guarantee of something Father God will do with us in the ages to come (cf. 2 Corinthians 1:22).
We are “heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Jesus Christ; if so be that we suffer with him, that we may be also glorified together” (Romans 8:17). There is coming a day when we members of the Church the Body of Christ will be manifested for all creation to see. Verses 18-25 elaborate: “ For I reckon that the sufferings of this present time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.  For the earnest expectation of the creature waiteth for the manifestation of the sons of God.  For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope,  Because the creature itself also shall be delivered from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.  For we know that the whole creation groaneth and travaileth in pain together until now.  And not only they, but ourselves also, which have the firstfruits of the Spirit, even we ourselves groan within ourselves, waiting for the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body.  For we are saved by hope: but hope that is seen is not hope: for what a man seeth, why doth he yet hope for?  But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with patience wait for it.”
The Bible calls that event “the adoption, to wit, the redemption of our body” (verse 23). These flesh-and-blood bodies are “vile,” subject to decay and death: they are perishing, growing weaker to eventually die short of the Lord’s coming (2 Corinthians 4:16). Thus, we need new, glorified bodies, just like Jesus Christ’s resurrected glorious body. Philippians 3:20-21 explains: “ For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ:  Who shall change our vile body, that it may be fashioned like unto his glorious body, according to the working whereby he is able even to subdue all things unto himself.” Commonly called “the Rapture” (from the Latin word translated “caught up” in 1 Thessalonians 4:17), this event is described in great detail in 1 Corinthians 15:40-58 and 1 Thessalonians 4:13-18.
In another place in Scripture, this event is called “our gathering together unto [Jesus Christ]” (2 Thessalonians 2:1). We also read about in Titus chapter 2: “ Looking for that blessed hope, and the glorious appearing of the great God and our Saviour Jesus Christ;  Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.” These “good works” are not just meant to be on the earth, but in the heavenly places. The way Jesus Christ will “subdue all things unto himself” (Philippians 3:21) is to give us—the Church that is His Body—new bodies so that we can function in the heavenly places for His glory. Ephesians 2:6-7 affirms: “ And hath raised us up together, and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus:  That in the ages to come he might shew the exceeding riches of his grace in his kindness toward us through Christ Jesus.” God the Father will use us to fill up the heavenly places with His Word! We will rule over the angels (1 Corinthians 6:3).
People look at Israel’s program instead of looking at what God is doing today. They are not “rightly dividing the word of truth” like 2 Timothy 2:15 says, and they are making their lives empty and miserable. We do not need signs because we are not Israel. “The Jews require a sign” (1 Corinthians 1:22a). In fact, we have something better than a miracle, a supernatural experience, et cetera. We have the written, inspired Word of God preserved in our language, the King James Bible. We walk by faith in that written Word of God, not by sight!
The Apostle Peter wrote 2 Peter 1:19-21: “ We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts:  Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation.  For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Ghost.” In the previous verses, Peter discussed the events of the Mount of Transfiguration, when he saw Jesus Christ glorified. Peter confessed that the Bible is the “more sure [trustworthy] word of prophecy.” We have something better than miraculous demonstrations; we have a Book, one that the Holy Spirit wrote and preserved for us to read, study, and believe. Will we believe it, alone? Or, will we place the authority elsewhere (as in a church/denomination), and thus be guilty of idolatry and unbelief?
We read in 2 Timothy 3:16-17: “ All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:  That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.” In the Scriptures, we learn how God intervened in human history to die on the cross for our sins, we learn how He intervened in human history to commission our Apostle Paul to minister to us on His behalf, we learn how He intervened in human history to lead holy men to write down His Word so we could have it today in our language, we learn how He intervenes in human history today by teaching us that written Word and causing its doctrine to manifest itself in our lives, and we learn what He will do with us in the heavenly places in the ages to come. Indeed, the God of the Bible is mightily at work!
God is certainly concerned with His creation; otherwise, His work is in vain. He had a purpose in creation, and to be unconcerned with it would surely never bring His purpose to pass because the Adversary (Satan) is active as well. Either we believe God’s Word when He said He would glorify His Son Jesus Christ in heaven and earth, or we disbelieve His Word when He said He would glorify His Son in heaven and earth. Either way, it does not change the fact that God intervened, intervenes, and will intervene in human affairs to bring His will to pass, regardless of what sinful men do to try to hinder it!
» Can I trust the King James Bible? (LINK TEMPORARILY UNAVAILABLE)
» Do we have guardian angels? (LINK TEMPORARILY UNAVAILABLE)
» How is Satan’s “policy of evil” operating today? (LINK TEMPORARILY UNAVAILABLE)